Most of the ramparts that are among the city’s oldest structures are still standing today. The oldest ones of these date back to the Roman Period, 4th century BC. Xenophon who visited the city in the 4th century BC mentions about the ramparts in his book.
The ramparts in Trabzon can be divided into three parts which are Yukarı Hisar (İçkale), Orta and Aşağı Hisar. Those named as Yukarı Hisar and Orta Hisar were built on a high rock piece between the Kuzgun Stream and İmaret (İskeleboz) River, and form the oldest part of the fortress like a trapezoid. That is why the ancient name of the city was Trapez / Trapezus.